Analisis Pengaruh Tutupan Lahan terhadap Distribusi Suhu Permukaan: Kajian Urban Heat Island di Jakarta, Bandung dan Surabaya
In 2015, more than half of Indonesia's population lived in urban areas that caused the growth of impervious surface area. The impervious surface is high heat-absorbance. Thus, the air temperature in this area is higher compared to the surrounding area. This phenomenon is known as Urban Heat Island (UHI). To examine the impact of UHI, continuous temperature monitoring is needed. Temperature monitoring using weather stations has limitations in terms of coverage area, then remote sensing methods could be useful to obtain data with sufficient spatial distribution. This study examines UHI phenomena in three densest cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Bandung, and Surabaya) using Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS imagery. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using the Single Channel (SC) algorithm and land cover identification using three spectral indices: Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI), Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), and Visible Red Near Infrared Build-Up Index (VrNIR-BI). The average surface temperature in Jakarta, Bandung, and Surabaya were 35.21°C, 28.52°C, and 31.69°C respectively. The relationship between LST and land cover was analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation. The correlation value between LST and NDVI in Jakarta, Bandung, and Surabaya were -0.49; -0,51; and -0.49 while between LST and VrNIR-BI were 0.49; 0.51; and 0.48.
BPS, Penduduk Indonesia : Hasil Survei Penduduk Antar Sensus 2015, Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik, 2015.
J. A. Voogt dan T. R. Oke, “Thermal remote sensing of urban climates,” Remote Sensing of Environment, pp. 370 - 384, 2003.
B. Chun dan J. M. Guldman, “Spatial statistical analysis and simulation of the urban heat island in high-density central cities,” Landscape and Urban Planning, pp. 76-88, 2014.
J. P. Walawender, M. Szymanowski, M. J. Hajto dan A. Bokwa, “Land Surface Temperature Patterns in the Urban Agglomeration of Krakow (Poland) Derived from Landsat-7/ETM+ Data,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, pp. 913-940, 2014.
F. Yuan dan M. E. Bauer, “Comparison of impervious surface area and normalized difference vegetation index as indicators of surface urban heat island effects in Landsat imagery,” Remote Sensing and Environment, pp. 375-386, 2007.
USGS, LANDSAT 8 SURFACE REFLECTANCE CODE (LASRC) PRODUCT GUIDE, South Dakota: USGS, 2018.
J. C. Jimenez-Munoz, J. A. Sobrino, D. Skokovic, C. Mattar dan J. Cristobal, “Land Surface Temperature Retrieval Methods from Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor Data,” IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. XI, no. 10, pp. 1840-1843, 2014.
USGS, “Landsat 8 Data User Handbook,” 29 Maret 2016. [Online]. Available: https://landsat.usgs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Landsat8DataUsersHandbook.pdf. [Diakses 12 Januari 2019].
R. C. Estoque, Y. Murayama dan S. W. Myint, “Effects of landscape composition and pattern on land surface temperature: An urban heat island study in the megacities of Southeast Asia,” Science of the Total Environment, pp. 50-61, 2016.
H. Xu, “Modification of Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI) to Enhance Open Water Features in Remotely Sensed Imagery,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, pp. 3025-3033, 2006.
USGS, “Using the USGS Level-1 Data Product | Landsat Missions,” 1 Desember 2013. [Online]. Available: https://landsat.usgs.gov/using-usgs-landsat-8-product. [Diakses 14 Januari 2019].
J. C. Jimenez-Munoz dan J. A. Sobrino, “A generalized single-channel method for retrieving land surface temperature from remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res, vol. 22, no. 108, pp. 46-88, 2003.
J. A. Barsi, K. Lee, G. Kvaran, B. L. Markham dan J. A. Pedelty, “The Spectral Response of the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager,” Remote Sensing, vol. 6, no. 108, pp. 10232-10251, 2014.
J. A. Sobrino, J. C. Jimenez-Munoz, G. Soria, M. Romaguera, L. Guanter, J. Moreno, A. Plaza dan P. Martinez, “Land surface emissivity retrieval from different VNIR and TIR sensor,” IEEE. Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , vol. III, no. 46, pp. 316-327, 2008.